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Risk Assessment and Security for Pipelines, Tunnels, and Underground Rail and Transit Operations



Risk Assessment and Security for Pipelines, Tunnels, and Underground Rail and Transit Operations details a quantitative risk assessment methodology for systematically analyzing various alternatives for protecting underground rail, oil and gas pipelines, pipeline freight transportation, and other tunnel systems from terrorism threats and other disasters. It examines the engineering, environmental, and economic impacts and addresses both direct and collateral damage


  • ISBN: 978-1-46-656932-4
  • Páginas: 414
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2014

Disponibilidad: 15 a 30 Días

Contenido Risk Assessment and Security for Pipelines, Tunnels, and Underground Rail and Transit Operations

Risk Assessment and Security for Pipelines, Tunnels, and Underground Rail and Transit Operations details a quantitative risk assessment methodology for systematically analyzing various alternatives for protecting underground rail, oil and gas pipelines, pipeline freight transportation, and other tunnel systems from terrorism threats and other disasters. It examines the engineering, environmental, and economic impacts and addresses both direct and collateral damage.

The book describes how to employ the methodology of quantitative psychology for effectively assessing risk in homeland security, defense actions, and critical infrastructure protection. Using pipelines, tunnels, underground rapid rail, and transit systems as examples, it maintains an emphasis on applying quantitative psychology to risk management in the areas of homeland security and defense.

    Outlines the background and system operations of pipelines, tunnels, underground rail, and transit systems as well as other super-speed futuristic trains
    Covers materials used for fabricating weapons of mass destruction and operations for terrorism
    Deals with the probabilistic risk estimation process, event tree analysis, and fault tree analysis
    Discusses the risk and vulnerability assessment tools and methodologies used by experts and governmental agencies

Approved for public release by the U.S. Federal Government, this book presents regulations, standard processes, and risk assessment models recommended by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and other federal and state agencies. Describing how to evaluate terrorism threats and warnings, it details protocols for preventive measures and emergency preparedness plans that are based on economic analysis.

With comprehensive coverage that includes risk estimation and risk acceptability analysis, the book provides a foundational understanding of risk and the various defensive systems that can improve safety and security as well as thwart terrorists’ efforts to sabotage critical infrastructure.

Table Contents



Risk Acceptability of Terrorism and Disaster




Hazards, Terrorism, and Weapons of Mass Destruction on Pipelines, Tunnels, and Underground Rail and Transit Systems


Terrorism and Disasters against Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems

Understanding the Basic Structure of Terror Organization

Basic Recruitment Operations

Terror Aspirant and Self-Radicalization

Terror Member

Terror-Suicide Bomber

Technical Bomb and Improvised Explosive Devices Developer

Terrorists Specializing in Chemical Threat

Terrorists Specializing in Biological Threat

Terrorists Specializing in Radiological and Nuclear Weapons

Terrorist Intelligence Information and Reconnaissance Operation

Terror Planner and Military Operation Planner

Weapons of Mass Destruction

Chemical Explosives

Acetone Peroxide

Ammonium Nitrate

Ammonium Nitrate–Fuel Oil

Cyclonite (RDX)

Dingu and Sorguyl

Hexamethylenetetramine Dinitrate




Lead Azide

Lead Styphnate

Mercury(II) Fulminate



Octagen (HMX)

Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate

Picric Acid

Plastic Explosives


Mechanical Components and Applications of Chemical Explosives


Aluminum Powder

Base Charge

Blasting Caps

Blasting Galvanometer

Blasting Machine

Blast Meters and Boosters

Bridgewire Detonator



Delay Time and Element


Shock Wave

Detonation Wave Theory

Selective Detonation

Sympathetic Detonation

Detonation Development Distance

Electroexplosive Device

Oxidizer and Oxygen Balance of Explosives

Heat of Explosion

Underwater Detonation

Shock Wave of Underwater Detonation

Gas Bubble

Calculation of Explosives

Hazards of Explosives

Chemical Threats as Poisonous Weapons and Lethal Dose (LD50)

Chemicals’ LD50


Cyanide LD50

Mustard Agents

Nerve Agents

Toxic Industrial Agents


Arsenic LD50

Inorganic Contaminants

Organic Contaminants

Biological Weapons

Radiological and Nuclear Threats

Radiological Dispersion Device

Improvised Nuclear Device

Nuclear Reactor Accident

Nuclear Weapon

Natural Disaster and Hazard


Extreme Heat



Landslides and Mudslides





Winter Weather




Space Weather




Introduction to Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail and Transit Operations, Terrorism, and Disasters


Disaster and Acts of Terrorism against Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems

Security for Hazardous and Radioactive Material Transport Systems

Fire, Explosion, and Detonation

Vapor Cloud Explosion and Jet Flames

Flash Point

Flammability Range

Autoignition Temperature

Flame Speed and Burning Velocity

Pool Fires

Emission and Dispersion

Dispersion Situation: Buoyancy Effects

Dispersion Situation: Momentum Effects

Dispersion Situation: Source Terms

Dispersion Situation: Source Elevation

Dispersion Situation: Meteorology and Topography

Dispersion Situation: Building and Obstructions

High Toxic Release

Dust and Fragment Explosion

Explosion Process3.2.6 Freight Capsule or Vessel Burst Pressure and Energy Distribution

Explosion Destruction by Missiles

Sources, Types, and Propagation of Missiles

Number and Size of Missiles

Velocity of Missiles

Angle of Departure of Missiles

Shape, Air Resistance, and Flight of Missiles

Flying Glass

Falling Masonry and Glass

Underground Freight Transportation through Pipelines, Tubular Rail, and Magnetic Levitation

Automated Transportation System

Automated Transportation Logistic System

Underground Transportation Logistic System

Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline for Underground Freight


Underground Container and Capsule Transport Systems

Tubular Rail

Magnetic Levitation Transportation System

Railroad and Railway Systems

Oil, Gas, and Other Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

Unregulated Hazardous Material Liquid Pipelines

Underwater/Immersed Tunnel and Cross-River Tunnel

Transportation Tunnels

Road Tunnels

Transit and Rail Tunnels

Mine Tunnel

Drainage Tunnel


Defense and Warfare Tunnels

Illegal Underground Tunnels



Risk and Vulnerability Assessment


National Aeronautics and Space Administration Risk Analysis and Management

Risk Matrices

FMECAs, FMEAs, and Fault Trees

NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment

Standard Homeland Security Risk Assessment and RAMCAP Plus Processes

Fatalities and Serious Injuries

Financial and Economic Impacts

Vulnerability Analysis

Threat Assessment

Risk and Resilience Assessment

Risk and Resilience Management

Department of Defense Risk Assessment and Management

Risk Reporting Matrix

Security Risk Categories








CARVER + Shock

Model-Based Vulnerability Analysis

Freight Assessment System

Federal Emergency Management Agency HAZUS-MH

Security Vulnerability Assessment

Automated Targeting System






ATS-Trend Analysis and Analytical Selectivity

Sandia National Laboratories Security Risk Assessment Methods

ASME RA-S Probabilistic Risk Assessment

Development of Prospect Theory

Expected Utility Theory

Prospect Theory

Cumulative Prospect Theory

Framing Effects

Nonlinear Preferences

Source Dependence

Risk Seeking

Loss Aversion

Cumulative Prospect Theory

Author’s Thoughts


Quantitative Risk Estimation Model for Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rapid Rail, and Transit Systems


Elements of Risk Assessment

Risk Estimation Development for Terrorism against Pipelines, Rails, and Tunnels

Risk Estimation Development for Clandestine Fabrication and Transshipment of Weapons of Mass Destruction by Terrorists and Rebellious States to Endangering Homeland Security

Event Tree Analysis

Estimation of Risk and Risk Factors

Calculation of Risk Rate

Life Expectancy Models

Fault Tree Analysis

Example of Event Tree Analysis

Identification of Hazards

Terrorism Intrusion

Flash Fire Probability

Flash Fire: Ignition of Flammable Materials

Detonation of Explosive Devices

Large-Scale WMD Detonation

Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems Adjacent to Human Population

Guideway Short Circuit

Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems Adjacent to Critical Assets

Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit System Rupture

Sensor Failure

Mechanical and Electrical Failure

Capsules, Underground Rail, and Transit System Derailment and Collision

HAZMAT Freight Container and Pipeline Damage, Collapse, and Spill

Risk Index Matrix

Human Injury Risk



Risk Acceptability Analysis Based on Quantitative Psychology of Intuitive Judgments


Public Perception of Risk: Quantitative

Psychology of Intuitive Judgment and Cumulative Prospect Theory

Voluntary or Involuntary

Discounting Time

Identifiability of Taking a Statistical Risk


Avoidability of Risks

Position in Hierarchy of Consequence

Ordinary or Catastrophic

Natural or Man-Originated

Magnitude of Probability of Occurrence

Strategic Determination of Risk Acceptability

Quantitative Revealed Societal Preference Method

Behavior and Risk Attitude

Establishing Risk Comparison Factors

Controllability of Risks

Perceived Degree of Control

System Control in Risk Reduction

Systemic Control of Risk

Control Factors

Controllability of New Technological Systems

Cost–Benefit Analysis

Prerequisites for Risk Acceptance of Terrorist Attacks and Disaster

Requirement for a Methodology

Establishing the Risk Referent

Multiple Risk Referents

Risk Proportionality Factor Derivation from Risk


Risk Proportionality Derating Factors

Degree of Systemic Control

Conversion of a Risk Reference to a Risk Referent



Strategic Intelligence Analysis, Military Support, and Military Intuitive Judgment in Safeguarding Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail and Transit Operations and Homeland


Intelligence Analysis

Standard Intelligence Analysis Cycle

Quantitative Risk Estimation for the Intelligence Analysis of Infrastructure Protection and WMD Mitigation

Intelligence Analysis Development: Risk Estimation Models for Rail System Threat and Intuitive Predictions for the Smuggle of WMD Components and Clandestine Terror-Military Operations

Intelligence Analysis: Event Tree Analysis Model

Perspectives of Risk Acceptability in Strategic Intelligence Analysis

Risk Estimation and Risk Acceptability

Perspectives of Risk Acceptability Analysis for Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems

Military Intuitive Judgment and Decision-Making Process

Command of the Armed Forces and the Chain of Command

Understanding Military Operations

Requirement of Military Support for Critical Infrastructure and Homeland Security


Northern Command

Department of Defense: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Incident Response

US Army Chemical Material Agency

US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command

US Army—20th Support Command Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosives Analytical Remediation Activity

US Army: 20th Support Command Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives

Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense

National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction: Civil Support Teams

US Army Special Operations Command

Posse Comitatus Act: USC Title 18, §1385

Insurrection Act: USC Title 10, §331–335, Chapter 15

Military Support to Civilian Authorities: USC Title 10, §371–382, Chapter 18

Military Support: Maintenance of Other Troops: USC Title 32, §109, Chapter 1

National Guard for Homeland Defense Duty: USC Title 32, §904, Chapter 9

Response to Threats of Terrorist Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction: USC Title 50, §2311, Chapter 40

Presidential Policy Directive 8

Manual for Civil Emergencies: DoD3025.1M

Military Support to Civilian Authorities: DoDD 3025.1

Military Assistance to Civilian Authorities: DoDD 3025.15



Preparedness, Preventive, and Defensive Measures


National Response Framework

Local Governments

Roles of Chief Elected or Appointed Officials

Roles of Emergency Managers

Roles of Department and Agency Heads

Roles of Individuals and Households

States, Territories, and Tribal Governments

Roles of the Governor

Roles of the State Homeland Security Adviser

Roles of the Director of the State Emergency Management Agency

Roles of Other State Departments and Agencies

Roles of Indian Tribes

Roles of Tribal Leaders

Federal Government

Role of the Secretary of Homeland Security

Law Enforcement

National Defense and Defense Support of Civil Authorities

International Coordination


Private Sector and Nongovernmental Organizations

Roles of Private Sector

Roles of Nongovernmental Organizations

Roles of Volunteers and Donors

Emergency Preparedness





Exercises, Evaluation, and Improvement


Baseline Priorities

Local, Tribal, and State Actions

Federal Actions


Operations Center

Activate and Deploy Resources

Proactive Response to Catastrophic Incidents


Preventive and Defensive Measures

Oil and Gas Pipeline Protection

Road, Highway, and Rail Tunnel Protection

Fire and Emergency Response

Preventive Systems for Road and Highway Tunnels

Preventive Measures for Terrorism

Minimum Standard Preventive Measures

High Standard Preventive Measures

System Protection Interoperability for Road, Highway, and Rail Tunnels

Emergency Responders and Operating Procedures

Engineering and Salient Features of Technological Systems

Mine Tunnels Hazard Prevention

Lighting in Mine Tunnel

Emergency Supply Facilities

Thermal Stress


Well-Being Monitoring


Personal Safety Devices and Accessories

Surface Area Boundary Planning and Design

Hazard, Vulnerability, and Risk Management of Mine Tunnels

Hazardous Substances

Fire and Explosion

Heating and Inundation

Outburst and Rockburst

Strata Control in Mine Tunnel

Mine Tunnel Explosive Materials Handling

Mine Tunnel Ventilation

Mine Tunnel Ventilation System Planning

Airways, Air Crossings, and Stoppings

Mine Tunnel Emergency Response: Fire Control and General Emergency Systems

Approaches for the Detection of Illegal Tunnels by Other Experts

Ground-Penetrating Radar

Seismic Waves

Electrical Resistivity

Microgravity and Gravity Surveying

Cosmic Rays

Cross-Well Radar

High-Resolution Seismic Methods

Approach to the Tunnel Detection Agent-Based Model

Electromagnetic Induction

Tunnel Detection Using Forward Scatter between Borehole Signal Sources

Fiber-Based Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry

Approaches for the Detection of Land Mines and Improvised Explosive Devices by Other Experts

Weapons Technological Intelligence

Ultra-Wideband Microwave Technology

Foot Patrols

Lasers to Find Land Mines and IEDs

Laser Drilling and Analyzing System

Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers

Dogs for IED Detectors

Radio Signal

Talon II Remote-Controlled Robot/Intelligent Robots

Mine Clearing Line Charge

Countering Nuclear and Radiological Threats

Mother Nature and Intelligent-Improvised Explosive Devices to Defeat the Low-Tech IEDs, Land Mines, Other Hidden Weapons, and the Enemy

Author’s Thoughts



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