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Handbook of Tunnel Engineering I: Structures and Methods



Tunnel engineering is one of the oldest, most interesting but also challenging engineering disciplines and demands not only theoretical knowledge but also practical experience in geology, geomechanics, structural design, concrete construction, machine technology, construction process technology and construction management. The two-volume "Handbuch des Tunnel- und Stollenbaus" has been the standard


  • ISBN: 978-3-433-03048-6
  • Páginas: 482
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2013

Disponibilidad: 15 a 30 Días

Contenido Handbook of Tunnel Engineering I: Structures and Methods

Tunnel engineering is one of the oldest, most interesting but also challenging engineering disciplines and demands not only theoretical knowledge but also practical experience in geology, geomechanics, structural design, concrete construction, machine technology, construction process technology and construction management. The two-volume "Handbuch des Tunnel- und Stollenbaus" has been the standard reference for German-speaking tunnellers in theory and practice for 30 years. The new English edition is based on a revised and adapted version of the third German edition and reflects the latest state of knowledge. The book is published in two volumes, with the first being devoted to more practical themes of construction and construction process in drill and blast and mechanised tunnelling. Microtunnelling and ventilation are also dealt with. All chapters include practical examples.


Table of Contents

Volume I: Structures and Methods

The authors

Foreword to the English edition

Foreword to the 3rd German edition

Foreword to the 2nd German edition

Foreword to the 1st German edition

1 Introduction

1.1 General

1.2 Historical development

1.3 Terms and descriptions

2 Support methods and materials

2.1 General

2.2 Action of the support materials

2.2.1 Stiffness and deformability

2.2.2 Bond

2.2.3 Time of installation

2.3 Timbering

2.3.1 General

2.3.2 Frame set timbering

2.3.3 Trussed timbering

2.3.4 Shoring and lagging

2.4 Steel ribs

2.4.1 General

2.4.2 Profile forms

2.4.3 Examples of typical arch forms for large and small tunnels

2.4.4 Installation

2.5 Lattice beam elements

2.6 Advance support measures

2.6.1 Steel lagging sheets and plates

2.6.2 Spiles

2.6.3 Injection tubes 

2.6.4 Pipe screens, grout screens, jet grout screens

2.6.5 Ground freezing

2.7 Rock bolts

2.7.1 General

2.7.2 Mode of action

2.7.3 Anchor length and spacing

2.7.4 Load-bearing behaviour

2.7.5 Anchor types

2.8 Concrete in tunnelling

2.8.1 General

2.8.2 Construction variants Two-layer construction Single-layer construction

2.8.3 Shotcrete General Process technology, equipment and handling Mixing and recipes Influence of materials technology and process technology Quality criteria, material behaviour and calculation methods, quality control Mechanisation of shotcrete technology Steel fibre concrete Working safety

2.8.4 Cast concrete Formwork Concreting Reinforced or unreinforced concrete lining Factors affecting crack formation Disadvantages of nominal reinforcement Stripping times Filling of the crown gap Joint details Single-pass process, extruded concrete After-treatment

2.8.5 Precast elements, cast segments Steel segments Cast steel segments Cast iron segments Reinforced concrete segments Geometrical shapes and arrangement Details of radial joints Circumferential joint details Fixing and sealing systems Segment gaskets Production of reinforced concrete segments Installation of segment lining

2.8.6 Linings for sewer tunnels

2.8.7 Yielding elements

3 The classic methods and their further developments

3.1 General

3.2 Full-face excavation

3.3 Partial-face excavation

3.3.1 Bench excavation

3.3.2 The Belgian or underpinning tunnelling method

3.3.3 The German or remaining core tunnelling method

3.3.4 The Austrian or upraise tunnelling method

3.3.5 The New Austrian Tunnelling Method

3.3.6 The English tunnelling method

3.3.7 The Italian or packing tunnelling method

3.4 Classic shield drives

3.5 The classic tunnelling machines

4 Shotcrete tunnelling

4.1 General

4.2 Top heading process

4.2.1 Shotcrete tunnelling method

4.2.2 Underpinning method

4.2.3 Crown pilot heading with crown beam 

4.2.4 Shotcrete tunnelling with longitudinal slots

4.3 Core tunnelling method with side headings

4.4 Special processes using shotcrete

4.4.1 Compressed air

4.4.2 Ground freezing, grouting

4.5 Shotcrete in mining

4.5.1 Tunnel support

4.5.2 Shaft insets

4.6 Outlook for further development

4.7 The new Italian tunnelling method (ADECCO-RS)

4.7.1 Theoretical model

4.7.2 Procedure through the example of the new line from Bologna – Florence

5 Drill and blast tunnelling

5.1 Historical development

5.2 Drilling 

5.2.1 General

5.2.2 Drills

5.2.3 Drill bits

5.2.4 Wear

5.2.5 Performance

5.2.6 Costs

5.3 Blasting

5.3.1 General 211

5.3.2 Explosives in tunnelling

5.3.3 Detonators and detonation systems in tunnelling

5.3.4 Transport, storage and handling of explosives

5.3.5 Charge determination

5.3.6 The drilling and firing pattern

5.3.7 Charge loading

5.3.8 Time calculation

5.3.9 Blasting technology aspects

5.4 Mucking

5.4.1 General

5.4.2 Loading machines

5.4.3 Muck conveyance

5.4.4 Output of transport vehicles

5.4.5 Examples of transport chains

5.4.6 Further developments

5.5 Combination of drill and blast with mechanised tunnelling processes

5.5.1 Combinations with roadheaders

5.5.2 Combination with full-face machines

5.6 Effects of blasting on the surroundings

5.6.1 Vibration

5.6.2 Composition and effects of the blasting gas emissions

5.7 Mechanisation and Automation

5.7.1 General

5.7.2 Emphasis of mechanisation

5.7.3 Computer-assisted drill jumbos

5.7.4 Mucking and tunnel logistics

6 Mechanised tunnelling

6.1 General

6.2 Categories of tunnelling machines

6.3 Shield machines

6.3.1 Categories of shield machines

6.3.2 Basic principle, definition

6.3.3 Face without support

6.3.4 Face with mechanical support

6.3.5 Face under compressed air

6.3.6 Face with slurry support Functional principle Slurry shield Thixshield Hydroshield Mixshield as a Hydroshield version Hydrojetshield Hydraulic soil transport Soil separation in shield operation with hydraulic transport

6.3.7 Face with earth pressure support Functional principle Scope of application and soil conditioning process Use of foam with earth pressure shields

6.3.8 Blade tunnelling and blade shields

6.3.9 The most important verification calculations Calculation of face stability with slurry and earth pressure support Calculation of safety against breakup and blowout Calculation of thrust force Determination of the air demand for compressed air support

6.4 Tunnel boring machines in hard rock

6.4.1 Categorisation of machines for use in hard rock

6.4.2 Basic principles 

6.4.3 Boring system

6.4.4 Thrust and bracing system

6.4.5 Support system

6.4.6 Ventilation

6.4.7 The use of slurry and earth pressure shields in hard rock formations

6.5 Special processes: combinations of TBM drives with shotcrete tunnelling

6.5.1 Areas of application

6.5.2 Construction possibilities

6.5.3 Example

6.6 Roadheaders (TSM) and tunnel excavators

6.6.1 Basic principle of a roadheader

6.6.2 Rock excavation by a roadheader

6.6.3 Ventilation and dust control with a roadheader

6.6.4 Profile and directional control of roadheaders

6.6.5 Construction sequence using a roadheader

6.6.6 Additional equipment and variations of roadheaders

6.6.7 Criteria for the selection of a roadheader

6.6.8 Comparison of partial face and full face machines

6.6.9 Combination of full face and partial face machines

6.6.10 Contour cutting process

6.6.11 Tunnel excavators

6.7 Checking the tunnelling machine for suitability and acceptance based on a risk analysis

6.7.1 Strategy to contain risk

6.7.2 Basic design

6.7.3 Analysis of obstructions

6.7.4 Machine specification

6.7.5 Acceptance of the TBM

6.7.6 Shield handbook

6.7.7 Data checks, functional tests

6.7.8 Implementation of the strategy through the example of the Elbe Tunnel and the Lefortovo Tunnel

6.7.9 Recommendations for the future

7 The driving of small cross-sections

7.1 General

7.2 Manned processes

7.2.1 General 

7.2.2 Pipe jacking

7.3 Unmanned processes

7.3.1 General

7.3.2 Non-steerable processes, or with limited control of direction

7.3.3 Guided processes

7.4 Shafts and jacking stations

7.4.1 Thrust shaft

7.4.2 Reception shaft

7.4.3 Main jacking station

7.4.4 Intermediate jacking stations

7.5 Support, product pipe

7.5.1 Loading during pipe jacking

7.5.2 Loading in operation

7.5.3 Insertion of the product pipe

8 Ventilation during the construction phase

8.1 General

8.2 Ventilation systems

8.2.1 Natural ventilation

8.2.2 Positive pressure ventilation

8.2.3 Extraction ventilation

8.2.4 Reversible ventilation

8.2.5 Combined ventilation.

8.2.6 Recirculation systems

8.3 Materials

8.3.1 Fans

8.3.2 Air ducts

8.3.3 Dedusters

8.4 Design and cost

8.5 Special ventilation systems

8.5.1 Ventilation for TBM drives

8.5.2 Ventilation of roadheader drives

8.5.3 Automatic ventilation



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