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Load Testing of Bridges: Current Practice and Diagnostic Load Testing

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Descripción

Load Testing of Bridges, featuring contributions from almost fifty authors from around the world across two interrelated volumes, deals with the practical aspects, the scientific developments, and the international views on the topic of load testing of bridges.


Características

  • ISBN: 9780367210823
  • Páginas: 302
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2019

Disponibilidad: 3 a 7 Días

Contenido Load Testing of Bridges: Current Practice and Diagnostic Load Testing

Load Testing of Bridges, featuring contributions from almost fifty authors from around the world across two interrelated volumes, deals with the practical aspects, the scientific developments, and the international views on the topic of load testing of bridges.

Volume 12, Load Testing of Bridges: Current practice and Diagnostic Load Testing, starts with a background to bridge load testing, including the historical perspectives and evolutions, and the current codes and guidelines that are governing in countries around the world. The second part of the book deals with preparation, execution, and post-processing of load tests on bridges. The third part focuses on diagnostic load testing of bridges.

This work will be of interest to researchers and academics in the field of civil/structural engineering, practicing engineers and road authorities worldwide

Table of Contents

Part I Background to Bridge Load Testing

Chapter 1 Introduction
Eva O. L. Lantsoght


1.1 Background
1.2 Scope of application
1.3 Aim of this book
1.4 Outline of this book

Chapter 2 History of Load Testing of Bridges
Mohamed K. ElBatanouny, Gregor Schacht and Guido Bolle


2.1 Introduction
2.2 Bridge load testing in Europe
2.3 Bridge load testing in North America
2.4 The potential of load testing for the evaluation of existing structures
2.5 Summary and conclusions
References

Chapter 3 Current Codes and Guidelines
Eva O. L. Lantsoght


3.1 Introduction
3.2 German guidelines
   3.2.1. General
   3.2.2. Safety philosophy and target proof load
   3.2.3. Stop criteria
3.3 British guidelines
   3.3.1. General
   3.3.2. Preparation and application of loading
   3.3.3. Evaluation of the load test
3.4 Irish guidelines
   3.4.1. General
   3.4.2. Preparation and application of loading
   3.4.3. Evaluation of the load test
3.5 Guidelines in the United States
   3.5.1. Bridges Manual for bridges Rating through Load Testing
      3.5.1.1. General
      3.5.1.2. Preparation of load test
      3.5.1.3. Execution of load test
      3.5.1.4. Detemination of the rating factor after a diagnostic load test
      3.5.1.5. Detemination of the rating factor after a proof load test
   3.5.2.Building
       3.5.2.1. ACI 437.1 Load test of concrete structures methods magnitude,protocols,and acceptance criteria
       3.5.2.2. New building ACI 318-14
       3.5.2.3. Existing building ACI 437.2M.13
3.6 French guidelines
   3.6.1. General
   3.6.2. Recommendations for load application
   3.6.3. Evaluation of the load test
3.7 Czech Republic and Slovakia
   3.7.1. General requirements
   3.7.2. Acceptance criteria
   3.7.3. Dynamic load tests
3.8 Spanish guidelines
   3.8.1  General considerations
   3.8.2. Loading requirements
   3.8.3. Stop and acceptance criteria for static load tests
   3.8.4. Acceptance criteria for dynamic load test
3.9 Other countries
   3.9.1. Italy
   3.9.2. Switzerland
   3.9.3. Poland
   3.9.4. Hungary
3.10 Current developments
3.11 Discussion
3.12 Summary
References

Part II Preparation, Execution, and Post-Processing of Load Tests on Bridges

Chapter 4 General Considerations
Eva O. L. Lantsoght and Jacob W. Schmidt


4.1 Initial considerations
   4.1.1. Introductyory remarks
   4.1.2. Load test types and their goals
   4.1.3. Type of bridge structure or element
4.2 Types of load tests, and which type of load test to select
   4.2.1. Diagnostic load tests
   4.2.2. Proof load tests
   4.2.3. Failure tests
4.3 When to load test a bridge, and when not to load test
4.4 Structure type considerations
    4.4.1. Steel bridges
    4.4.2. Reinforced concrete bridges
    4.4.3. Prestressed concrete bridges
    4.4.4. Masonry bridges
    4.4.5. Timber bridges
4.5 Safety requirements during load testing
    4.5.1. General considerations
    4.5.2. Safety of personnel and traveling public
    4.5.3. Structural safety
4.6 Summary and conclusions
References

Chapter 5 Preparation of Load Tests
Eva O. L. Lantsoght and Jacob W. Schmidt


5.1 Introduction
5.2 Determination of test objectives
5.3 Bridge inspection
    5.3.1. Inspection results
    5.3.2. Limitations of testing site
5.4 Preliminary calculations and development of finite element model
    5.4.1. Development of finite element modeñ
    5.4.2. Assessment calculations
    5.4.3. Estimation of bridge behavior during load test
    5.4.4. Shear capacity considerations
5.5 Planning and preparation of load test
    5.5.1. Planning
    5.5.2. Personnel requirements
    5.5.3. Loading requirements
    5.5.4. Traffic control and safety
    5.5.5. Measurements and sensor plan
5.6 Summary and conclusions
References

Chapter 6 General Considerations for the Execution of Load Tests
Eva O. L. Lantsoght and Jacob W. Schmidt


6.1 Introduction
6.2 Loading equipment
6.3 Measurement equipment
   6.3.1. Measurement requirements
   6.3.2  Data acquisition and visualization equipment
   6.3.3. Sensors
   6.3.4. Interpretation of measurements during load test
6.4 Practical aspects of execution
6.5 Summary and conclusions
References

Chapter 7 Post-Processing and Bridge Assessment
Eva O. L. Lantsoght and Jacob W. Schmidt


7.1 Introduction
7.2 Post-processing of measurement data
    7.2.1. Applied load
    7.2.2. Verification of measurement data
    7.2.3. Correction for support deformations
    7.2.4. Correction for influence of temperature and humidity
    7.2.5. Reporting of measurements
7.3 Updating finite element model with measurement data
7.4 Bridge assessment
7.5 Formulation of recommendations for maintenance or operation
7.6 Recommendations for reporting of load tests
7.7 Summary and conclusions
References

Part III Diagnostic Load Testing of Bridges

Chapter 8 Methodology for Diagnostic Load Testing
Eva O. L. Lantsoght, Jonathan Bonifaz, Telmo A. Sanchez and Devin K. Harris


8.1 Introduction
8.2 Preparation of diagnostic load tests
    8.2.1. New bridge diagnostic testing
    8.2.2. Existing bridge diagnostic testing
8.3 Procedures for the execution of diagnostic load testing
    8.3.1 Loading methods
    8.3.2. Monitoring bridge behavior during test
8.4 Processing diagnostic load testing results
    8.4.1. On-site validation and review of test data
    8.4.2. Processing and reporting test data
    8.4.3. Verification of structural responses for new bridges
    8.4.4. Calibration of analytical model for existing bridges
8.5 Evaluation of diagnostic load testing results
    8.5.1. Evaluation of results for new bridges
    8.5.2. Improved assessment for existing bridges
8.6 Summary and conclusions
References
Appendix: Determination of Experimental Rating Factor According to Barker

Chapter 9 Example Field Test to Load Rate a Prestressed Concrete Bridge
Eli S. Hernandez and John J. Myers


9.1 Introduction
9.2 Sample bridge description
9.3 Bridge instrumentation plan
   9.3.1. Installation of embedded sensors
   9.3.2.Data acquisition by non-contact and remote equipment
      9.3.2.1. Automated total station ( ATS)
      9.3.2.2. Remote sensing vibrometer ( RSV-150 )
9.4 Diagnostic load test program
   9.4.1 Static load test
   9.4.2.Dynamic load test
9.5 Test results
   9.5.1. Static load test
      9.5.1.1. Vertical deflection
      9.5.1.2. Lateral distribution factor ( deflection measurements )
      9.5.1.3. Girders´ longitudinal stain
      9.5.1.4. Lateral distribution factor ( strain measurements )
9.6 Girder distribution factors
9.7 Load rating of Bridge A7957 by field load testing
9.8 Recommendations
9.9 Summary
References

Chapter 10 Example Load Test: Diagnostic Testing of a Concrete Bridge with a Large Skew Angle
Mauricio Diaz Arancibia and Pinar Okumus


10.1 Summary
10.2 Characteristics of the bridge tested
10.3 Goals of load testing
10.4 Preliminary analytical model
10.5 Coordination of the load test
10.6 Instrumentation plan
    10.6.1. Sensor types and application methods
    10.6.2. Sensor locations
10.7 Data acquisition
10.8 Loading
10.9 Planning and scheduling
10.10 Redundancy and repeatability
10.11 Results
    10.11.1. Preliminary evaluation of results
    10.11.2. Shear strain influence lines and shear distribution
    10.11.3. Bending strain influence lines and moment distribution
    10.11.4. Deck strain under short-term loading
10.12 Conclusions and recommendations
Ackowledgements
References

Chapter 11 Diagnostic Load Testing of Bridges – Background and Examples of Application
Piotr Olaszek and Joan R. Casas


11.1 Background
    11.1.1. Definition
    11.1.2. Objectives
    11.1.3. Planning and execution
    11.1.4. Results and safety assessment
11.2 Examples of diagnostic load testing
    11.2.1. Static load testing
       11.2.1.1. The estimation of the elastic and permanent values
       11.2.1.2. Examples of application to different types of bridges
       11.2.1.3. Planning and execution
    11.2.2. Dynamic load testing
       11.2.2.1. Extrapolation of values for quasi-static speed
       11.2.2.2. Extrapolation of values vaues under higher speed
       11.2.2.3. Examples of dynamics testing
11.3 Conclusions and recommendations for practice
References

Chapter 12 Field Testing of Pedestrian Bridges
Darius Bacinskas, Ronaldas Jakubovskis and Arturas Kilikevi?ius


12.1 Introduction
   12.1.1.Types of the tests
   12.1.2. Objetives of the tests
12.2 Preparation for testing
    12.2.1. General guidelines
    12.2.2. Preliminary inspection of the footbridge before the tests
    12.2.3. The test program
    12.2.4. Loading of the bridge
       12.2.4.1. Static tests
       12.2.4.2. Free vibration tests
       12.2.4.3. Forced and ambient vibration tests
12.3 Organization of the tests
     12.3.1. General requirements
     12.3.2. Measuring techniques and equipment
     12.3.3. Execution of the tests
        12.3.3.1. Static tests
        12.3.3.2. Dynamic tests
12.4 Analysis of test results
     12.4.1. General guidelines
     12.4.2. Methods for identification of static and dynamic parameters of the bridge
         12.4.2.1. Methods for identification of static parameters of the bridge
         12.4.2.2. Methods for identification of dynamic parametes of the bridge
     12.4.3. Presentation of results
12.5 Theoretical modeling of tested bridge
     12.5.1. Introduction
     12.5.2. Modeling techniques
     12.5.3. Comparision of experimental and theoreticasl results
     12.5.4. Model updating
     12.5.5. Code requirements for serviceability of footbridges
     12.5.6. Evaluation of footbridge condition based on test results
12.6 Concluding remarks

Acknowledgments
References

 

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