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Improving Concrete Quality



Improve the Quality of Concrete, Improve the Quality of Construction Quality measurement is not prevalent in the concrete industry and quality investment is not seen as potentially generating a positive return. Improving Concrete Quality


  • ISBN: 978-1-46-659212-4
  • Páginas: 214
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2014

Disponibilidad: 15 a 30 Días

Contenido Improving Concrete Quality

Improve the Quality of Concrete, Improve the Quality of Construction

Quality measurement is not prevalent in the concrete industry and quality investment is not seen as potentially generating a positive return. Improving Concrete Quality examines how and why concrete quality should be measured, and includes instruction on developing specifications with the aim of improving concrete quality.

Reduce Concrete Variability: Reduce Costs and Increase Volume

The first part of the book considers the tangible and intangible benefits of improved quality. The later chapters explore concrete strength variability in detail. It provides a greater grasp of the variation in concrete, as well as a deeper understanding of how material variability affects concrete performance. The author discusses the components of variability (material, manufacturing, testing) and provides steps to measuring and reducing variability to improve the quality of concrete. The text also contains a chapter on data analysis for quality monitoring and test results.

Come Away with Practices and Tools That Can Be Applied Immediately:

 Provides techniques and how specifications can improve concrete quality
Offers a clear understanding of the link between the materials (cement, SCM, aggregate, water, air), manufacturing, testing variability, and concrete quality
 Includes information on analyzing test data to improve quality

Improving Concrete Quality quantifies the benefits of improved quality, and introduces novel ways of measuring concrete quality. This text is an ideal resource for quality personnel in the concrete industry. It also benefits architects, engineers, contractors, and researchers.

Table Contents

How Good Is Your Quality?

Costs Due to Poor Quality
Why Is It So Important to Lower Standard Deviation
Is It Worthwhile Not to Invest in Improved Quality under Certain Circumstances?
2010 NRMCA Quality Measurement and Bench Marking Survey
How Can a Concrete Producer Improve Quality?

Variation in Concrete Strength Due to Cement

Cement from a Given Source Varies between Shipments
How Should a Ready Mixed Concrete Producer Use ASTM C917?
Cement Choice
Better Understand Concrete Variability and Lower It!
Reduce Low-Strength
Problems and Optimize Mixture
Troubleshoot Low-Strength
How Should a Cement Producer Use ASTM C917?

Variation in Concrete Strength Due to Water and Air Content

Mixing Water Content Variation and Its Effect on Compressive
Strength Variation
Air Content Variation and Its Effect on Strength Variation
Combined Effect of Water and Air Content Variation on
Strength Variation



Sources of Water
Washwater in Truck Mixer Drum from Previous Load
Free Water from Aggregates
Water Added at Slump Rack
Water Added at Job Site
Variations in Mixing-Water
Effect of Mixing-Water
Content, Mixing-Water
Demand on
Measured Slump
Plant Tests for Quality Assurance

Variation in Concrete Strength and Air Content Due to Fly Ash

Variability of Fly Ash Shipments from Given Source
Air Entrainment
Strength Activity
Fly Ash Testing Required by ASTM C311 and C618
Suggested Producer Actions
Air Entrainment
Strength Activity Index
Other Tests
Summary of Suggested Producer Actions

Variation in Concrete Performance Due to Aggregates

Variability of Aggregate from Single Source
Aggregate Properties and Their Effect on Concrete Mixture
Proportioning and Performance
Relative Density and Absorption of Aggregate
Aggregate Moisture Content
Void Content in Coarse Aggregates
Void Content of Fine Aggregates
Aggregate Grading
Material Finer than 75 ?m (No 200)
Sand Equivalency
Using Aggregate Test Results
Table 6.1 Test Results
Table 6.2 Test Results—Tests Conducted by the Aggregate
Table 6.2 Test Results—Tests conducted by Concrete Producer

Basic Statistics

Basic Statistical Parameters
Frequency Distributions
Normal Distribution
Predictions Using a Normal Distribution
Types of Variation
Common Causes and Special Causes
Step Changes
Control Charts
Individual Chart
Average and Range Charts
Moving Average and Moving Range Charts
CUSUM Charts

Variation in Concrete Performance Due to Batching

ASTM C94 Scale Accuracy and Accuracy of Plant Batching
Two Issues with Batching
Variation of Batch Weights and Its Effects
Cementitious Weight Variation and Its Effect on Strength
How Can a Company Improve Batching Accuracy?
Yield Measurements—A Tool to Improve Batching Accuracy

Variation in Concrete Performance Due to Manufacturing

ASTM C94 Requirements for Uniformity of Concrete
Improving Uniformity of Concrete Produced in Truck Mixer
Batching Sequence
Mixing Revolutions
Mixing Speed
What Can a Company Do to Improve Uniformity of Concrete Produced in a Truck Mixer?
Variation in Concrete Performance Due to Temperature
Effect of Temperature on Setting Time
Effect of Temperature on Early-Age
Effect of Temperature on Mixing-Water
Variation in Concrete Performance Due to Delivery Time

Variation in Concrete Performance Due to Testing

A Measure of Testing Variability
Other Methods of Evaluating Testing
Other Property Measurements
Producer Testing
Rate of Strength Gain
Cylinder Density
Laboratory Reports
ACI Code and Specification Requirements Related to Concrete
Steps to Improve the Quality of Acceptance Testing
Testing Programs
Incentives to Testing Technicians
Other Strategies

Internal Concrete Testing

Why Test at the Plant When We Can Get Job-Site
Test Data?
Criteria for Plant Testing
Selection of Mixture Classes
Sampling and Types of Testing
Frequency of Testing
Data Analysis
Control Charts
Air Content


Compressive Strength

CUSUM Charts


Using Job-Site Test Results for Improving Concrete Quality

Acceptance Test Results
Data Analysis
Rejecting Outliers
Control Charts
Control Chart Limits
Monitoring S of Compressive Strength
CUSUM Charts
Use of Control and CUSUM Charts to Analyze Project
Test Data
Project 1
Project 2
Project 3

Impact of Specifications on Concrete Quality

Allow Use of Standard Deviations Not Just over Designs
Move from Prescriptive to Performance-Based
Minimum Cementitious Content
Maximum w/cm
Changes to Mixture Proportions after Submittal
Producer Qualifications
Installer and Testing Agency Qualifications
Concrete Acceptance Testing
Current information on Material Properties

Impact of Concrete Quality on Sustainability

Target a Low Standard Deviation
Better Job-Site
Curing and Overall Testing Quality
Mixture Optimization
Fewer Returned Concrete and Hardened Concrete Issues
Plant and Truck Mixer Maintenance
Temperature Measurements
Batching Accuracy and Yield Measurements
Mixture Adjustments

Elements of a Quality Management System for a Concrete Producer

Why Should a Company Have a QMS?
What Are Elements of a QMS and How Does It Improve Quality?
Quality Objectives and Measurement
Management Commitment
Customer Focus
Personnel Qualifications
Quality Manager
Plant Operators
Field Testing Technicians
Laboratory Technicians
Truck Mixer Operators
Laboratory Testing Capabilities
Aggregate Tests
Concrete Tests
Materials Management and Conformance
Production Control
Specification Review, Mixture Development, Optimization
Receiving Orders and Record Keeping
Internal Testing at the Plant
Internal Testing at the Job Site
Quality Assurance Test Records
Nonconforming Acceptance Test Results
QualiYy Audit
Returned Concrete and Washwater


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