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Railway Geotechnics



Railway Geotechnics covers track, track substructure, load environment, materials, mechanics, design, construction, measurements, and management. Illustrated by case studies, with an emphasis on the geotechnical aspects of railway engineering, it discusses these topics from a historical perspective. It also presents the methodologies and best practices developed over the past 20 years.


  • ISBN: 978-0-415-69501-5
  • Páginas: 574
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2015

Disponibilidad: 3 a 7 Días

Contenido Railway Geotechnics

• Offers methods, best practices and case studies
• Illustrates with examples of "how to do it"
• Includes descriptions of the latest technologies and development related to track substructure


Links Geotechnics with Railway Track Engineering and Railway Operation

Good railway track and railway operations depend on good geotechnics, in several different ways and at varying levels.

Railway Geotechnics covers track, track substructure, load environment, materials, mechanics, design, construction, measurements, and management. Illustrated by case studies, with an emphasis on the geotechnical aspects of railway engineering, it discusses these topics from a historical perspective. It also presents the methodologies and best practices developed over the past 20 years.

Written by Four Experienced Professionals
This book:

• Emphasizes the practical aspects and best practices for railway track and substructure
• Contains guidelines for design, construction, and maintenance of railway track and substructure
• Provides many examples and case studies

Railway Geotechnics is written primarily for professionals and graduate students, and begins with the fundamentals and basic principles, leading in to practical applications. The authors bring considerable experience and expertise, with many years of research and development, academia, railway operations, and consulting.

Table of Contents

1 Track

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Historical perspective
   1.2.1 US railway expansion
   1.2.2 Development of modern mainline track substructure
   1.2.3 Future for track substructure
1.3 Superstructure
1.4 Substructure
   1.4.1 Ballast
   1.4.2 Subballast
   1.4.3 Subgrade (trackbed, formation)
   1.4.4 Slopes
1.5 Substructure effects on track performance
1.6 Alternative track structures
1.7 Track transitions
   1.7.1 Bridge approach
   1.7.2 Ballasted track to slab track
   1.7.3 Special trackwork
   1.7.4 Grade crossing
1.8 Track inspection and maintenance
   1.8.1 Inspection
   1.8.2 Maintenance
   1.8.3 Management
1.9 Layout of the book

2 Loading

2.1 Static loading
2.2 Cyclic loading
2.3 Dynamic loading
   2.3.1 Dynamic load or impact load factor
   2.3.2 High-frequency forces
   2.3.3 General equations for calculating dynamic wheel–rail forces
   2.3.4 Modeling for dynamic wheel–rail forces
   2.3.5 Stiffness and damping parameters in track modeling
   2.3.6 Dynamic track modeling results
   2.3.7 Measured dynamic wheel–rail forces
   2.3.8 Critical speed of high-speed passenger trains
2.4 Load transfer in track foundation
   2.4.1 Stresses and strains in track foundation
   2.4.2 Load transmission in track
   2.4.3 Strength properties
   2.4.4 Total stress, effective stress, and pore water pressure
2.5 Moving load and principal stress rotation

3 Substructure

3.1 Ballast
   3.1.1 Ballast functions
   3.1.2 Parent rock characterization
   3.1.3 Aggregate characterization
 Grain size distribution
 Shape, angularity, texture
 Petrographic analysis
 Crushing and abrasion resistance
 Bulk-specific gravity, absorption, sulfate soundness
 Ballast aggregate specifications
   3.1.4 Ballast fouling
   3.1.5 Ballast layer behavior
 Ballast layer strength parameters
 Ballast stress–strain behavior
 Ballast deformation
 Ballast layer residual stress
 Ballast strength and deformation tests
   3.1.6 Ballast compaction
   3.1.7 Used ballast
3.2 Subballast
   3.2.1 Subballast functions
   3.2.2 Subballast characterization
   3.2.3 Subballast performance
   3.2.4 Subballast drainage
   3.2.5 Separation
3.3 Subgrade
   3.3.1 Subgrade functions
   3.3.2 Soil types
   3.3.3 Common problems
   3.3.4 Subgrade improvement methods
3.4 Other substructure materials
   3.4.1 Ballast treatment methods
   3.4.2 Alternative subballast materials
   3.4.3 Hot mix asphalt
   3.4.4 Concrete and cementitious material
   3.4.5 Water
3.5 Track transitions

4 Mechanics

4.1 Track and subgrade models
   4.1.1 BOEF model
   4.1.2 Track modulus
   4.1.3 Half-space model
   4.1.4 GEOTRACK
   4.1.5 Track modulus analysis using GEOTRACK
   4.1.6 Track modulus as a measure of track support
   4.1.7 KENTRACK
   4.1.8 Finite element model
4.2 Resilient modulus
   4.2.1 Resilient modulus of granular materials
   4.2.2 Resilient modulus of fine- grained subgrade soils
   4.2.3 Influence of soil physical state on resilient modulus
   4.2.4 Li–Selig method for prediction of resilient modulus
   4.2.5 Examples of prediction using Li–Selig method
4.3 Cumulative plastic deformation
   4.3.1 Cumulative plastic deformation of ballast
   4.3.2 Cumulative plastic deformation of subballast
   4.3.3 Cumulative plastic deformation for fine-grained soils Soil critical state Prediction model Li–Selig model for cumulative plastic deformation
   4.3.4 Effects of traffic, ballast, and subgrade conditions on total settlement
   4.3.5 Track settlement and roughness
   4.3.6 Track settlement at bridge approaches Ballast layer deformation Subgrade layer deformation Field investigation and modeling results

5 Design

5.1 Ballasted track
   5.1.1 Background
   5.1.2 Design methods for granular layer thickness
 AREMA equations
 Raymond method
 British Rail method
 Li–Selig method
   5.1.3 Development of Li–Selig method
 Subgrade failure criteria
 Effect of granular layer on subgrade stress
 Design chart development
   5.1.4 Application of Li–Selig method
 Design traffic
 Material properties
 Design criteria
 Design procedure 1
   5.1.5 Comparisons with test results
 Low track modulus test track
 Mix passenger and freight revenue service sites
   5.1.6 Initial granular layer construction thickness
5.2 Asphalt track
   5.2.1 Asphalt track foundation
   5.2.2 Asphalt mix design
   5.2.3 Asphalt track foundation design
   5.2.4 Use of asphalt track for drainage
   5.2.5 Asphalt track foundation test under heavy axle loads
5.3 Slab track foundation
   5.3.1 Overall requirements
   5.3.2 Failure modes and design criteria
   5.3.3 Design of concrete slab
   5.3.4 Subgrade and subbase
   5.3.5 Analysis of slab track foundation
   5.3.6 Slab track design based on subgrade deformation
5.4 Track transition
   5.4.1 Design principles/best practices
 Bridge approach
 Slab track to ballasted track
 Special trackwork
 Grade crossing
    5.4.2 Examples of design and remediation
 Reduce stiffness and increase damping for track on bridge
 Consistent track strength/restraint
 Soil improvement
 Unnecessary stiffness transition from slab track to ballasted track

6 Drainage

6.1 Sources of water in the track
   6.1.1 Direct water
   6.1.2 Runoff water
   6.1.3 Ground water
   6.1.4 Capillary action of water in soil
   6.1.5 Longitudinal flow of water in track
6.2 Water effects on track substructure
   6.2.1 Granular soil
   6.2.2 Cohesive soil
   6.2.3 Internal erosion/piping
   6.2.4 Erosion from surface water
   6.2.5 Frost heave
6.3 Water principles for track
   6.3.1 Water flow through soil
   6.3.2 Surface water flow
6.4 Drainage materials
   6.4.1 Pipes
   6.4.2 Graded aggregate
   6.4.3 Geosynthetics
   6.4.4 Hot mix asphalt
6.5 External track drainage design
   6.5.1 Diverting water away from track
   6.5.2 Right-of-way mapping
   6.5.3 Ditch and slope
6.6 Internal track drainage design
   6.6.1 Internal drainage flow nets
   6.6.2 Ballast and subballast layers
   6.6.3 Design approach
   6.6.4 Ballast pockets
6.7 Drainage improvement and rehabilitation
   6.7.1 Ballast cleaning
   6.7.2 Subballast drainage
   6.7.3 Ditching and grading

7 Slopes

7.1 New slopes
    7.1.1 Site characterization
    7.1.2 Materials
    7.1.3 Embankment fills
  Steepened slopes
  Retaining structures
    7.1.4 Cut slopes
7.2 Existing soil slopes
   7.2.1 Types of instability
   7.2.2 Field investigation
 Site reconnaissance
 Test borings
 Geotechnical instrumentation
   7.2.3 Examples of railway embankment instability
7.3 Soil slope stability analysis
   7.3.1 Basic method of slices
   7.3.2 Example of method of slices
   7.3.3 Factor of safety
   7.3.4 Computer models
   7.3.5 Soil strength and stress condition
   7.3.6 Effects of train load
7.4 Rock slopes
   7.4.1 Types of instability
   7.4.2 Investigation
   7.4.3 Basic mechanics of rock slope stability
   7.4.4 Rock slope stability analysis
7.5 Slope monitoring and stabilization
   7.5.1 Monitoring
   7.5.2 Slope stabilization
 Structural restraint
 Buttress restraint
 Soil improvement
 Rock slope considerations

8 Measurements

8.1 Site investigations and characterization of track substructure conditions
    8.1.1 Desk study
    8.1.2 Field reconnaissance
  Soil types and strata
  Ground and surface water
  Soil strength and stiffness properties
   8.1.3 Mapping
  Ground-based LIDAR systems
   8.1.4 Cross-trenches
   8.1.5 Test borings
   8.1.6 In situ tests
8.2 Ground penetrating radar
   8.2.1 GPR fundamentals
   8.2.2 GPR for track surveys
   8.2.3 Equipment 377
   8.2.4 Example GPR image results
   8.2.5 Track substructure condition measurements
 GPR measurement of fouled ballast
 GPR measurement of moisture
 GPR measurement of layers
8.3 Track geometry
   8.3.1 Measurement fundamentals
   8.3.3 Measures of geometry variation
 Spatial correction to “line up” successive geometry data
 Standard deviation over fixed segment track length
 Running roughness
 Other measures of track roughness
   8.3.4 Track alignment control for high-speed rail
   8.3.5 Advances in analysis of track geometry data
 Analyzing track geometry space curve data
   8.3.6 Filtered space curve cyclic characteristics and vehicle dynamics
   8.3.7 Determining effectiveness of geometry correction from waveform analysis
   8.3.8 Performance-based track geometry inspection
 Objectives and background
 Vehicle performance measures
 Types of performance-based track geometry inspection systems
 Performance criteria
   8.4 Track deflection under load
          8.4.1 Track stiffness/deflection measurement techniques
        Track stiffness testing using track loading vehicle
        University of Nebraska track deflection measurement
        Rolling stiffness measurement vehicle—Banverket
        Falling weight deflectometer
        Spectral analysis of surface waves
         8.4.2 Vertical load-deflection behavior
         8.4.3 Lateral load-deflection behavior
         8.4.4 Track buckling and track panel shift

9 Management

9.1 Life-cycle cost considerations
         9.1.1 Designing track to minimize settlement versus allowing settlement and geometry corrections
         9.1.2 Track renewal with reconstruction versus limited renewal of track components
       Track laying machines and track subgrade renewal machines
         9.1.3 Cost considerations of ballast-less track (slab track)
       Top-down versus bottom-up slab track construction
         9.1.4 Vertical rail deflection to locate soft track support of new track
9.2 Ballast life
         9.2.1 Influence of ballast depth on ballast life
         9.2.2 Influence of tamping degradation on ballast life
9.3 Maintenance needs assessment
        9.3.1 Functional condition
        9.3.2 Structural condition
        9.3.3 Vertical rail deflection to locate soft support of existing track
        9.3.4 Assessment of track life and maintenance needs
9.4 Maintenance methods and equipment
        9.4.1 Tamping
        9.4.2 Improved methods to correct track geometry error
      Design over-lift tamping
      Improved tamper control systems
      Stone blowing
        9.4.3 Ballast shoulder cleaning
        9.4.4 Ditching
        9.4.5 Ballast undercutting/cleaning
        9.4.6 Track vacuum
9.5 Examples of management based on measurement
        9.5.1 Using track geometry data to determine tamping needs
        9.5.2 Poor ride quality: Due to track geometry error or the vehicle?
        9.5.3 Managing the dip at track transitions
        9.5.4 Managing undercutting: Selecting locations, track segment length, and their priority
9.6 Subballast and subgrade improvement and rehabilitation
        9.6.1 Subballast improvement methods
        9.6.2 Subgrade stabilization methods
      Over-excavation and replacement
      Admixture stabilization
      Horizontal reinforcement
      Rammed-aggregate piers
      Compaction grouting
      Penetration grouting
      Soil mixing
      Slurry injection
        9.6.3 Control of expansive soil
9.7 Observational method
        9.7.1 Examples of use
        9.7.2 Potential disadvantages of the observational method

10 Case studies

10.1 Diagnosis and remediation of a chronic subgrade problem
      10.1.1 Background and investigation (diagnosis)
      10.1.2 Substructure conditions
      10.1.3 Solution and implementation
      10.1.4 Monitoring
10.2 Track design on old roadbed
      10.2.1 Investigation
      Use of GPR to assess old roadbed conditions
      Use of track geometry car data
      Use of mapping 493
     10.2.2 Granular layer thickness design
      Design method 1
      Design method 2
     10.2.3 Challenges encountered during design
      Unstable slopes
      Poor internal and external track drainage
10.3 Track design—new roadbed
     10.3.1 Background
     10.3.2 Site description and soil conditions
     10.3.3 Track foundation design
     10.3.4 Construction control
10.4 Slope instability
     10.4.1 Investigation
     10.4.2 Site conditions
     10.4.3 Potential solutions
      Retaining wall with anchored tie backs
      Soil reinforcement
      Micropiles with cap beam
      Anchored blocks
      Soil dowels
     10.4.4 Extent of remediation



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