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Ductile design of steel structures



Comprehensive coverage of the background and design requirements for plastic and seismic design of steel structures Thoroughly revised throughout, Ductile Design of Steel Structures, Second Edition, reflects the latest plastic and seismic design provisions and standards from the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) and the Canadian Standard Association (CSA). The book covers steel material, cross-section, component, and system response for applications in plastic and seismic design, and provides practical guidance on how to incorporate these principles into structural design.


  • ISBN: 978-0071623957
  • Páginas: 928
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2011

Disponibilidad: Inmediata

Contenido Ductile design of steel structures

Comprehensive coverage of the background and design requirements for plastic and seismic design of steel structures

Thoroughly revised throughout, Ductile Design of Steel Structures, Second Edition, reflects the latest plastic and seismic design provisions and standards from the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) and the Canadian Standard Association (CSA). The book covers steel material, cross-section, component, and system response for applications in plastic and seismic design, and provides practical guidance on how to incorporate these principles into structural design.

Three new chapters address buckling-restrained braced frame design, steel plate shear wall design, and hysteretic energy dissipating systems and design strategies. Eight other chapters have been extensively revised and expanded, including a chapter presenting the basic seismic design philosophy to determine seismic loads. Self-study problems at the end of each chapter help reinforce the concepts presented. Written by experts in earthquake-resistant design who are active in the development of seismic guidelines, this is an invaluable resource for students and professionals involved in earthquake engineering or other areas related to the analysis and design of steel structures.


•Structural steel properties
•Plastic behavior at the cross-section level
•Concepts, methods, and applications of plastic analysis
•Building code seismic design philosophy
•Design of moment-resisting frames
•Design of concentrically braced frames
•Design of eccentrically braced frames
•Design of steel energy dissipating systems
•Stability and rotation capacity of steel beams

Table Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction


Chapter 2 Structural Steel

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Common Properties of Steel Materials
       2.2.1 Engineering Stress-Strain Curve
       2.2.2 Effect of Temperature on Stress-Strain Curve
       2.2.3 Effect of Temperature on Ductility and Notch-Toughness
       2.2.4 Strain Rate Effect on Tensile and Yield Strengths
       2.2.5 Probable Yield Strength
2.3 Plasticity, Hysteresis, Bauschinger Effects
2.4 Metallurgical Process of Yielding, Slip Planes
2.5 Brittleness in Welded Sections
       2.5.1 Metallurgical Transformations During Welding, Heat-Affected Zone, Preheating
       2.5.2 Hydrogen Embrittlement
       2.5.3 Carbon Equivalent
       2.5.4 Flame Cutting
       2.5.5 Weld Restraints
       2.5.6 Lamellar Tearing
       2.5.7 Thick Steel Sections 4
       2.5.8 Fracture Mechanics
       2.5.9 Partial Penetration Welds
       2.5.10 K-Area Fractures
       2.5.11 Strain Aging
       2.5.12 Stress Corrosion
       2.5.13 Corrosion Fatigue
       2.5.14 Ductility of Corroded Steel
2.6 Low-Cycle versus High-Cycle Fatigue
       2.6.1 High-Cycle Fatigue
       2.6.2 Low-Cycle Fatigue
2.7 Material Models
       2.7.1 Rigid Plastic Model
       2.7.2 Elasto-Plastic Models
       2.7.3 Power, Ramberg-Osgood, and Menegotto-Pinto Functions
       2.7.4 Smooth Hysteretic Models
2.8 Advantages of Plastic Material Behavior .
2.9 Self-Study Problems

Chapter  3 Plastic Behavior at the Cross-Section Level Ill

3.1 Pure Flexural Yielding Ill
       3.1.1 Doubly Symmetric Sections
       3.1.2 Sections Having a Single Axis of Symmetry
       3.1.3 Impact of Some Factors on Inelastic Flexural Behavior
       3.1.4 Behavior During Cyclic Loading ...
3.2 Combined Flexural and Axial Loading
       3.2.1 Rectangular Cross-Section
       3.2.2 Wide-Flange Sections: Strong-Axis Bending
       3.2.3 Wide-Flange Sections: Weak-Axis Bending
       3.2.4 Moment-Curvature Relationships
3.3 Combined Flexural and Shear Loading ....
3.4 Combined Flexural, Axial, and Shear Loading
3.5 Pure Plastic Torsion: Sand-Heap Analogy —
       3.5.1 Review of Important Elastic Analysis Results
       3.5.2 Sand-Heap Analogy
3.6 Combined Flexure and Torsion
3.7 Biaxial Flexure
       3.7.1 General Principles
       3.7.2 Fiber Models
3.8 Composite Sections
3.9 Self-Study Problems

Chapter  4 Concepts of Plastic Analysis

4.1 Introduction to Simple Plastic Analysis
4.2 Simple Plastic Analysis Methods
      4.2.1 Event-to-Event Calculation (Step-by-Step Method)
      4.2.2 Equilibrium Method (Statical Method)
      4.2.3 Kinematic Method (Virtual-Work Method)
4.3 Theorems of Simple Plastic Analysis
      4.3.1 Upper Bound Theorem
      4.3.2 Lower Bound Theorem
      4.3.3 Uniqueness Theorem
4.4 Application of" the Kinematic Method
      4.4.1 Basic Mechanism Types
      4.4.2 Combined Mechanism
      4.4.3 Mechanism Analysis by Center of Rotation
      4.4.4 Distributed Loads
4.5 Shakedown Theorem ( Deflection Stability)
4.6 Yield Lines
      4.6.1 General Framework
      4.6.2 Strength of Connections
      4.6.3 Plastic Mechanisms of Local Buckling
4.7 Self-Study Problems

Chapter  5 Systematic Methods of Plastic Analysis .

5.1 Number of Basic Mechanisms
5.2 Direct Combination of Mechanisms
       5.2.1 Example: One-Bay, One-Story Frame
       5.2.2 Example: Two-Story Frame with
Overhanging Bay
5.3 Method of Inequalities
5.4 Self-Study Problems

Chapter  6 Applications of Plastic Analysis

6.1 Moment Redistribution Design Methods . ..
       6.1.1 Statical Method of Design
       6.1.2 Autostress Design Method
6.2 Capacity Design
       6.2.1 Concepts
       6.2.2 Shear Failure Protection
       6.2.3 Protection Against Column Hinging
6.3 Push-Over Analysis 285
       6.3.1 Monotonic Push-Over Analysis ...
       6.3.2 Cyclic Push-Over Analysis
6.4 Seismic Design Using Plastic Analysis
6.5 Global versus Local Ductility Demands ...
       6.5.1 Displacement Ductility versus Curvature Ductility
       6.5.2 Ductility of Yielding Link for Structural Element in Series
6.6 Displacement Compatibility of Nonductile Systems
6.7 Self-Study Problems

Chapter 7 Building Code Seismic Design Philosophy

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Need for Ductility in Seismic Design
      7.2.1 Elastic Response and Response Spectrum
      7.2.2 Inelastic Response and Ductility Reduction
7.3 Collapse Mechanism versus Yield Mechanism
7.4 Design Earthquake
7.5 Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure
7.6 Physical Meaning of Seismic Performance Factors
7.7 Capacity Design
       7.7.1 Global-Level Approach
       7.7.2 Local-Level Approach
7.8 Performance-Based Seismic Design Framework
       7.8.1 Seismic Performance Objective ..
       7.8.2 USA: ASCE7
       7.8.3 Canada: NBCC
       7.8.4 Japan: BSL
       7.8.5 Seismic Design of Tall Buildings ...
       7.8.6 Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design
7.9 Historical Perspective of Seismic Codes

Chapter 8 Design of Ductile Moment-Resisting Frames

8.1 Introduction
      8.1.1 Historical Developments
      8.1.2 General Behavior and Plastic Mechanism
      8.1.3 Design Philosophy
8.2 Basic Response of Ductile Moment-Resisting Frames to Lateral Loads
      8.2.1 Internal Forces During Seismic Response
      8.2.2 Plastic Rotation Demands
      8.2.3 Lateral Bracing an Local Buckling
8.3 Ductile Moment-Frame Column Design . . .
      8.3.1 Axial Forces in Columns
      8.3.2 Considerations for Column Splices
      8.3.3 Strong-Column/Weak-Beam Philosophy
      8.3.4 Effect of Axial Forces on Column Ductility
8.4 Panel Zone 358
      8.4.1 Flange Distortion and Column Web Yielding/Crippling Prevention
      8.4.2 Forces on Panel Zones
      8.4.3 Behavior of Panel Zones
      8.4.4 Modeling of Panel Zone Behavior
      8.4.5 Design of Panel Zone
8.5 Beam-to-Column Connections
      8.5.1 Knowledge and Practice Prior to the 1994 Northridge Earthquake
      8.5.2 Damage During the Northridge Earthquake
      8.5.3 Causes for Failures
      8.5.4 Reexamination of Pre-Northridge Practice
      8.5.5 Post-Northridge Beam-to-Column Connections Design Strategies for New Buttdings—Initial Concepts
      8.5.6 Post-Northridge Beam-to-Column Prequalified Connections
      8.5.7 International Relevance
      8.5.8 Semi-Rigid (Partially Restrained) Bolted Connections
8.6 Design of a Ductile Moment Frame
     8.6.1 General Connection Design Issues
     8.6.2 Welding and Quality Control Issues
     8.6.3 Generic Design Procedure
8.7 P-A Stability of Moment Resisting Frames
     8.7.1 Fundamental Concept and Parameters
     8.7.2 Impact on Hysteretic Behavior
     8.7.3 Design Requirements
8.8 Design Example
    8.8.1 Building Description and Loading
    8.8.2 Global Requirements
    8.8.3 Basis of Design
    8.8.4 Iterative Analysis and Proportioning
    8.8.5 Member Checks
    8.8.6 WUF-W Connection Design
    8.8.7 Detailing
    8.8.8 Bracing
    8.8.9 Completion of Design
8.9 Self-Study Problems

Chapter 9 Design of Ductile Concentrically Braced Frames

9.1 Introduction
   9.1.1 Historical Developments
   9.1.2 General Behavior and Plastic Mechanism
   9.1.3 Design Philosophy
9.2 Hysteretic Behavior of Single Braces
   9.2.1 Brace Physical Inelastic Cyclic  Behavior
   9.2.2 Brace Slenderness
   9.2.3 Compression Strength Degradation of Brace Under Repeated Loading
   9.2.4 Brace Compression Overstrength at First Buckling
   9.2.5 Evolution of Codified Strength and Slenderness Limits
   9.2.6 Local Buckling
   9.2.7 Low-Cycle Fatigue Models
   9.2.8 Models of Single Brace Behavior ...
9.3 Hysteretic Behavior and Design of Concentrically Braced Frames
   9.3.1 System Configuration and General Issues
   9.3.2 Brace Design
   9.3.3 Beam Design
   9.3.4 Column Design
   9.3.5 Connection Design
   9.3.6 Other Issues
9.4 Other Concentric Braced-Frame Systems
   9.4.1 Special Truss Moment Frames (STMF)
   9.4.2 Zipper Frames
9.5 Design Example
   9.5.1 Building Description and Loading
   9.5.2 Global Requirements
   9.5.3 Basis of Design
   9.5.4 Preliminary Brace Sizing
   9.5.5 Plastic Mechanism Analysis
   9.5.6 Capacity Design of Beam
   9.5.7 Capacity Design of Column
   9.5.8 Iterative Analysis and  Proportioning
   9.5.9 Connection Design
   9.5.10 Completion of Design
   9.5.11 Additional Consideration: Gravity Bias in Seismic Systems
9.6 Self-Study Problems

Chapter 10 Design of Ductile Eccentrically Braced Frames

10.1 Introduction
     10.1.1 Historical Development
     10.1.2 General Behavior and Plastic Mechanism
     10.1.3 Design Philosophy
10.2 Link Behavior
     10.2.1 Stiffened and Unsoffened Links ...
     10.2.2 Critical Length for Shear Yielding
     10.2.3 Classifications of Links and Link Deformation Capacity
     10.2.4 Link Transverse Stiffener
     10.2.5 Effect of Axial Force
     10.2.6 Effect of Concrete Slab
     10.2.7 Link Overstrength
     10.2.8 Qualification Test and Loading Protocol Effect
10.3 EBF Lateral Stiffness and Strength
     10.3.1 Elastic Stiffness
     10.3.2 Link Required Rotation
     10.3.3 Plastic Analysis and Ultimate Frame Strength
10.4 Ductility Design
     10.4.1 Sizing of Links
     10.4.2 Link Detailing
     10.4.3 Lateral Bracing of Link
10.5 Capacity Design of Other Structural Components
     10.5.1 General
     10.5.2 Internal Force Distribution
     10.5.3 Diagonal Braces
     10.5.4 Beams Outside of Link
     10.5.5 Columns
     10.5.6 Connections
10.6 Design Example
     10.6.1 Building Description and Loading
     10.6.2 Global Requirements
     10.6.3 Basis of Design
     10.6.4 Sizing of Links
     10.6.5 Final Link Design Check
     10.6.6 Link Rotation
     10.6.7 Link Detailing
     10.6.8 Completion of Design
10.7 Self-Study Problems

Chapter 11 Design of Ductile Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames

11.1 Introduction
11.2 Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames versus Conventional Frames
11.3 Concept and Components of Buckling-Restrained Brace
11.4 Development of BRBs
11.5 Nonductile Failure Modes
        11.5.1 Steel Casing
        11.5.2 Brace Connection
        11.5.3 Frame Distortion Effect on Gusset Connection
11.6 BRBF Configuration
11.7 Design of Bucklmg-Restrained Braces
        11.7.1 Brace Design
        11.7.2 Elastic Modeling
        11.7.3 Gravity Loads
11.8 Capacity Design of BRBF
        11.8.1 AISC Testing Requirements
        11.8.2 Brace Casing
        11.8.3 Brace Connections
        11.8.4 Beams and Columns
11.9 Nonlinear Modeling
11.10 Design Example
        11.10.1 Building Description and Loading
        11.10.2 Global Requirements
        11.10.3 Basis of Design
        11.10.4 Iterative Analysis and Proportioning
        11.10.5 Brace Validation and Testing
        11.10.6 Completion of De

Chapter 12 Design of Ductile Steel Plate Shear Walls

12.1 Introduction
        12.1.1 General Concepts
        12.1.2 Historical Developments
        12.1.3 International Implementations . . .
12.2 Behavior of Steel Plate Shear Walls
         12.2.1 General Behavior
         12.2.2 Plastic Mechanism
         12.2.3 Design Philosophy and Hysteretic Energy Dissipation
12.3 Analysis and Modeling
         12.3.1 Strip Models
         12.3.2 Finite Element Models
         12.3.3 Demands on HBEs
         12.3.4 Demands on VBEs
12.4 Design
         12.4.1 Introduction
         12.4.2 Web Plate Design
         12.4.3 HBE Design
         12.4.4 VBE Design
         12.4.5 Distribution of Lateral Force Between Frame and Infill
         12.4.6 Connection Details
         12.4.7 Design of Openings
12.5 Perforated Steel Plate Shear Walls
        12.5.1 Special Perforated Steel Plate Shear Walls
        12.5.2 Steel Plate Shear Walls with Reinforced Corners Cutouts
12.6 Design Example
        12.6.1 Building Description andLoading
        12.6.2 Global Requirements
        12.6.3 Basis of Design
        12.6.4 Web Design
        12.6.5 HBE Design
        12.6.6 VBE Design
        12.6.7 Drift
        12.6.8 HBE Connection Design
        12.6.9 Completion of Design
12.7 Self-Study Problems

Chapter 13 Other Ductile Steel Energy Dissipating Systems

13.1 Structural Fuse Concept
13.2 Energy Dissipation Through Steel Yielding
        13.2.1 Early Concepts
        13.2.2 Triangular Plates in Flexure
        13.2.3 Tapered Shapes
        13.2.4 C-Shaped and E-Shaped Devices .
13.3 Energy Dissipation Through Friction
13.4 Rocking Systems
13.5 Self-Centering Post-Tensioned Systems ....
13.6 Alternative Metallic Materials: Lead, Shape-Memory Alloys, and Others
13.7 Validation Quantification

Chapter 14 Stability and Rotation Capacity of Steel Beams

14.1 Introduction
14.2 Plate Elastic and Postelastic Buckling Behavior
14.3 General Description of Inelastic Beam Behavior
        14.3.1 Beams with Uniform Bending Moment
        14.3.2 Beams with Moment Gradient . . .
        14.3.3 Comparison of Beam Behavior Under Uniform Moment and Moment Gradient
14.4 Inelastic Flange Local Buckling
        14.4.1 Modeling Assumptions
        14.4.2 Buckling of an Orthotopic Plate
        14.4.3 Torsional Buckling of a Restrained Rectangular Plate
14.5 Web Local Buckling
14.6 Inelastic Lateral-Torsional Buckling
14.6.1 General
14.6.2 Beam Under Uniform Moment
14.6.3 Beam Under Moment Gradient
14.7 Code Comparisons
14.8 Interaction of Beam Buckling Modes
14.9 Cyclic Beam Buckling Behavior
14.10 Self-Study Problem

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